These and similar incidents are all examples of hate crime. Hate crimes are criminal offences that are motivated by prejudice or in which prejudice is a contributing factor. They are directed at individuals or groups based on:
a racist, antisemitic or antiziganist trope
their gender or sexual identity
a disability or chronic condition
It is irrelevant whether the person actually belongs to the group in question or this is just assumed by the perpetrators. People can also become victims of hate crime due to the coincidence of multiple attributes.
Hate crime comes in many guises
Hate crime can be committed online or offline. Hate crime can come from strangers or from people you know (e.g. neighbours or work colleagues). The attacks are often verbal and involve insults or intimidation. Sometimes they involve property damage or physical attacks and even murder.
Hate crime is a criminal offence and should be reported. Click here to learn where and how you can best file a report.